Methodology: Soft Systems Methodology (SSM)

Peter Checkland

From Soft Systems Methodology by Jim Underwood:

The soft systems methodology was developed in the 1960s by Peter Checkland at Lancaster University. This methodology arose out of attempts to apply systems engineering principles ("hard" systems theory) to business problems. Systems engineering emphasises measurable system objectives and the top down decomposition of systems into subsytems. Advanced views of systems engineering (such as VSM) show how systems exhibit emergent (unexpected, counterintuitive) behaviour because of complex feedback loops among system components. ... read more

Soft Systems Methodology

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