The acquisition process is typically divided into five stages; the first four formal phases are separated by milestone decision points. The five stages are—
• Phase 0: Concept Exploration (CE)
• Phase I: Program Definition and Risk Reduction (PDRR)
• Phase II: Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD)
• Phase III: Production, Fielding/Deployment, and Operational Support (PFDOS)
• Demilitarization and Disposal (DD)
However, not all programs go through the same number of phases. The number of phases and decision points are tailored to meet the specific needs of an individual program based on such things as the adequacy of proposed risk management plans and the urgency of the user’s need. Tailoring is conducted to minimize the time it takes to satisfy an identified need consistent with common sense and sound business practices. The cost to implement product changes increases as a program moves from the earlier to the later phases of its life cycle (Figure 2-1). IPPD’s greatest potential for leverage during the acquisition process, therefore, occurs in the early stages of development, when the program is most flexible. It is at this early stage that an analysis of life-cycle issues and cost/performance tradeoff studies can provide a life-cycle balanced approach and prevent costly changes later in the product’s life cycle. For a major program, this period would be in Phases 0 and I. Accordingly, this chapter discusses these phases in detail. For a modification or upgrade to an existing program, even though it may not have formal DoD acquisition phases and milestones associated with it, the sequence of events is the same. Therefore, regardless of the type of requirement the custome defines—a new system or an upgrade to an existing system—the activities described in this chapter apply.
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Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) evolved in industry as an outgrowth of efforts such as Concurrent Engineering to improve customer satisfaction and competitiveness in a global economy. In May 1995, consistent with the Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to implement best commercial practices, the Secretary of Defense directed "a fundamental change in the way the Department acquires goods and services. The concepts of IPPD and Integrated Product Teams (IPTs) shall be applied throughout the acquisition process to the maximum extent practicable." During the summer of 1995, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) surveyed over 80 government and industry organizations regarding their IPPD policies and practices. Using those survey results, OSD published the DoD Guide to Integrated Product and Process Development (Version 1.0), dated February 5, 1996 (hereinafter called the DoD Guide to IPPD). The DoD Guide to IPPD was developed to provide a general understanding of DoD’s perspective on IPPD.