U.S. Commercial Standard (US 12207-1996)
In August 1995, ISO/IEC 12207 was released as an approved international standard. The JISWG is adapting 12207 for United States use to include the technical content found in J-STD-016. The working group consists of representatives from commercial and government organizations.
US 12207-1996 will consist of ISO/IEC 12207 with additional materials.
The scope of ISO/IEC 12207 is broader than the scope of J-STD-016. J-STD-016-1995 focuses on the development process while ISO/IEC 12207 includes the acquisition, supply, operation, and maintenance processes. Consequently, the additional materials in US 12207-1996 focus on those areas where the two standards overlap, i.e., development and the supporting processes such as documentation, quality assurance, configuration management, and joint reviews.
IEEE/EIA 12207 (June 1998)
- Also called “US 12207” for historical reasons
- Represents a “tactical” implementation of ISO 12207
- Focus is on the organizational level rather than the project level
ISO 12207 is an ISO standard for software lifecycle processes. It aims to be 'the' standard that defines all the tasks required for developing and maintaining software.
The ISO 12207 standard establishes a process of lifecycle for software, including processes and activities applied during the acquisition and configuration of the services of the system. Each Process has a set of outcomes associated with it. There are 23 Processes, 95 Activities, 325 Tasks and 224 Outcomes (the new "ISO/IEC 12207:2008 Systems and software engineering -- Software life cycle processes" defines 43 system and software processes).
The standard has the main objective of supplying a common structure so that the buyers, suppliers, developers, maintainers, operators, managers and technicians involved with the software development use a common language. This common language is established in the form of well defined processes. The structure of the standard was intended to be conceived in a flexible, modular way so as to be adaptable to the necessities of whoever uses it. The standard is based on two basic principles: modularity and responsibility. Modularity means processes with minimum coupling and maximum cohesion. Responsibility means to establish a responsibility for each process, facilitating the application of the standard in projects where many people can be legally involved.
The set of processes, activities and tasks can be adapted according to the software project. These processes are classified in three types: basic, for support and organizational. The support and organizational processes must exist independently of the organization and the project being executed. The basic processes are instantiated according to the situation.
Replaces BS EN ISO 8402:1995.
Replaced by BS EN ISO 9000:2005
This document introduces the eight quality management principles on which the quality management system standards of the ISO 9000:2000 and ISO 9000:2008 series are based. These principles can be used by senior management as a framework to guide their organizations towards improved performance. The principles are derived from the collective experience and knowledge of the international experts who participate in ISO Technical Committee ISO/TC 176, Quality management and quality assurance, which is responsible for developing and maintaining the ISO 9000 standards.
From ISO 9000 essentials:
The ISO 9000 family of standards represents an international consensus on good quality management practices. It consists of standards and guidelines relating to quality management systems and related supporting standards.
ISO 9001:2008 is the standard that provides a set of standardized requirements for a quality management system, regardless of what the user organization does, its size, or whether it is in the private, or public sector. It is the only standard in the family against which organizations can be certified – although certification is not a compulsory requirement of the standard.
The other standards in the family cover specific aspects such as fundamentals and vocabulary, performance improvements, documentation, training, and financial and economic aspects.
ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ISO 9000 is maintained by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization and is administered by accreditation and certification bodies. The rules are updated, as the requirements motivate changes over time.
Some of the requirements in ISO 9001:2008 (which is one of the standards in the ISO 9000 family) include
* a set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business;
* monitoring processes to ensure they are effective;
* keeping adequate records;
* checking output for defects, with appropriate and corrective action where necessary;
* regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness; and
* facilitating continual improvement
A company or organization that has been independently audited and certified to be in conformance with ISO 9001 may publicly state that it is "ISO 9001 certified" or "ISO 9001 registered". Certification to an ISO 9001 standard does not guarantee any quality of end products and services; rather, it certifies that formalized business processes are being applied.
Although the standards originated in manufacturing, they are now employed across several types of organizations. A "product", in ISO vocabulary, can mean a physical object, services, or software.
ISO 10303 is an ISO standard for the computer-interpretable representation and exchange of product manufacturing information. Its official title is "Industrial automation systems and integration - Product data representation and exchange", known as "STEP" or "Standard for the Exchange of Product model data".
The International standard's objective is to provide a mechanism that is capable of describing product data throughout the life cycle of a product, independent from any particular system. The nature of this description makes it suitable not only for neutral file exchange, but also as a basis for implementing and sharing product databases and archiving.
Typically STEP can be used to exchange data between CAD, Computer-aided manufacturing, Computer-aided engineering, Product Data Management/EDM and other CAx systems. STEP is addressing product data from mechanical and electrical design, Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, analysis and manufacturing, with additional information specific to various industries such as automotive, aerospace, building construction, ship, oil and gas, process plants and others.
STEP, more formally known as ISO 10303, is an International Standard for the computer-interpretable representation and exchange of product data. The objective is to provide a mechanism that is capable of describing product data throughout the life cycle of a product, independent from any particular system. The nature of this description makes it suitable not only for neutral file exchange, but also as a basis for implementing and sharing product databases and archiving.
AP233 (Application Protocol 233) is the STEP Systems Engineering Project, one of several dozen projects each focusing on specific exchange and integration problems within a given domain. Examples of other STEP projects are:
* AP203 - 3D Designs of Mechanical Piece Parts and Assemblies (MCAD)
* AP209 - Structural Analysis and Related Design (Analysis)
* AP210 - Electronic Assembly, Interconnect, and Packaging Design (ECAD)
* AP212 - Electrotechnical Design and Installation (Cable Harnesses)
* AP238 - Application interpreted model for computer numeric controllers (Machining)
STEP's System Engineering Project
AP233 is a STEP-based data exchange standard targeted to support the needs of the systems engineering community, consistent with emerging standards in CAD, structural, electrical, engineering analysis and support domains. The AP233 Project is collaborating with the OMG SE DSIG team that is developing systems engineering extensions to Systems Modeling Language (OMG SysML™) and INCOSE (International Council on Systems Engineering), a systems engineering professional society.