According to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, force (F) = ma, where a is acceleration. For example, on earth an object has a certain mass and a certain weight. When the same object is placed in outer space, away from the earth’s gravitational field, its mass is the same, but it is now in a "weightless" condition (that is, gravitational acceleration and, thus, force equal zero). The English system uses the pound-force (lbf) as the unit of weight. Knowing that acceleration has the units of ft/sec2 and using Newton’s second law, we can determine that the units of mass are lbf-sec2/ft. For simplification, 1 lbf-sec2/ft is called a slug. The basic unit of mass in the English system is the slug. However, the slug is an almost meaningless unit for the average individual. The unit of mass generally used is the pound-mass (lbm). In order to allow lbm to be used as a unit of mass, we must divide Newton’s second law by the gravitational constant (gc).
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The Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the thermal sciences. The handbook includes information on thermodynamics and the properties of fluids; the three modes of heat transfer - conduction, convection, and radiation; and fluid flow, and the energy relationships in fluid systems. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility fluid systems.
Module 1 - Thermodynamics
This module explains the properties of fluids and how those properties are affected by various processes. The module also explains how energy = balances can be performed on facility systems or components and how efficiency can be calculated.