THE NEED FOR HUMAN VIEWS
The design of complex, large-scale, socio-technical systems such as Network Enabled Capability (NEC) requires collaboration between a diverse range of disciplines in order to embrace all areas of systems design. One approach to dealing with such complexity is the use of Architectural Frameworks such as MODAF. MODAF has been adapted by the UK MoD from the US original, the DoDAF (Department of Defense Architectural Framework). This document is tailored to MODAF, but many of the concepts apply to DoDAF as well.
The need for defining HVs stemmed from concerns as to whether MODAF and DoDAF are able to address HFI issues sufficiently. Equally, it was recognised that HFI can benefit from SE approaches. MODAF has been recognised widely as an essential tool to support capability-based acquisition.
Military systems often operate in distributed environments and collaborative settings. They require the specification not only of the information systems (i.e. software and hardware), but also the social, organisational, task, and skill structures that support complex information flows and information sharing. Human roles, processes, structures, and associated purposes and constraints should be recognised clearly as an integral part of such socio-technical systems – starting at the capability definitions.
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This document describes a set of Human Views (HVs) to be used as complementary elements to MODAF – the Ministry of Defence Architectural Framework. It aims to clarify the role of Human Factors (HF) when creating Enterprise Architectures in support of acquisition – in order to facilitate both Human Factors Integration (HFI) and Systems Engineering (SE). HVs aim to enable better integration across all the Defence Lines of Development (DLOD) and to aid Through-Life Capability Management (TLCM).
Enterprise Architectures such as MODAF produce conceptual models of current and future systems. By modelling an enterprise as a whole, MODAF provides an overview perspective that aids acquisition management and collaboration between diverse disciplines. Therefore, it is an important tool for helping to fulfil the prime objectives of HFI – those of integrating the different HFI domains, integrating with other engineering disciplines, managing the need for HFI activities, and informing trade-off analyses.
HVs clarify the scope of enterprises as socio-technical systems. HVs capture specific human-related components of enterprise models to enable effective HFI. By explicitly modelling the human elements that are being shaped in the process of capability design, they can be considered early and related closely to the design and implementation of technology. This supports a change of focus from technology-centred functional requirements only to broader capability-based requirements.