4.0 Define Shipping, Handling and Storage Environments
An essential step to designing a cushioned package system is to determine the severity of the environment in which it will be shipped. The general idea is to evaluate the method of distribution to determine the hazards which exist and the levels at which they are present. These may include such things as accidental drops during handling, vehicle vibration, shock inputs, temperature extremes, humidity levels, and compression loads during storage. This handbook focuses on the areas of shock and vibration, but it is important that the other areas receive proper consideration during the design process.
4.2 Rough-Handling Considerations Associated with Shipping.
The nature and amount of rough handling a package receives in distribution depends on a number of factors. However, the two principal elements of rough handling are shock and vibration. The field of shock and vibration analysis is a highly complex branch of engineering science. Therefore, a detailed discussion of this subject is beyond the scope of this document. The following information is a brief summary of shock and vibration analysis concepts. [For a more detailed discussion see (1-5, 9, 10, 17, 18) in Appendix D].
Replaced/Superseded by document(s)
The development of adequate cushioned packages for the vast quantity of Department of Defense (DOD) equipment and material is a challenging task, especially when you consider that this includes an extremely wide range of items. This range includes everything from small, fragile electronic instruments to bulky aircraft structures. The package designer must not only protect these items from the hazards they encounter in worldwide shipment, but they must
also do it economically. This handbook provides the user orderly, concise procedures for effective cushioning design for all package design applications. Of special help is the liberal use of illustrations that provide graphic depiction of key points and concepts. The successful package designer utilizes not only these scientific design principles, but also a liberal amount of sound judgment and common sense. Therefore, this handbook includes discussions on both scientific and practical considerations.
This handbook is for guidance only. This handbook cannot be cited as a requirement. If it is, the contractor does not have to comply. The information in this handbook applies chiefly to conventional cushioning materials. These materials include polyurethane foam, foamed polystyrene, and foamed polyethylene, etc. This document omits data on creep characteristics, and special cushioning devices. The graphical data for the Stress-Strain Curves (Appendix A), Peak Acceleration-Static Stress Curves (Appendix B) and Transmissibility-Frequency Curves (Appendix C) is available in electronic format from the Air Force Packaging Technology and Engineering Facility. See the appendices for further information. Frequently, for brevity sake, this handbook excludes detailed background information on particular topics from the main text. However, Section 2.0 and Appendix D cite references that present these topics in much more detail. This document's units of measurement are in both English and metric. The English unit is first.