HSI in the Acquisition Process
The major challenge to enhancing human performance while reducing crew size in any complex system is the increased incidence of human error. The International Maritime Organization, the U.S. Coast Guard, and the Navy Safety Center have agreed that human error is the causal factor in 80% of mishaps on ships and in maritime systems. The incidence and impact of human error will only accelerate as the complexity of systems increases and the workload placed on remaining crew accelerates. Thus HSI becomes increasingly important.
The integration of the HSI domains is achieved at two levels: consolidation of domain activities in support of overarching HSI, and trade-offs among HSI domains to optimize the integration of the human in the system. Domain consolidation is achieved through a number of initiatives, including
• Preparing an HSI plan that describes and schedules overarching
HSI and individual HSI domain activities and products
throughout the acquisition process, including interactions
among domain activities and collaboration of individual domains
to achieve common objectives.
• Collecting and tracking operator and maintainer HSI domain
feedback and lessons learned from legacy systems.
• Conducting a unified and consolidated front-end analysis (topdown
requirements analysis) that addresses requirements and
concepts for each HSI domain and the interactions of requirements
for individual domains.
• Maintaining a consolidated database on HSI assumptions,
issues, questions, expected problems, risks, concepts, and criteria
concerning all aspects of human involvement in the system.
• Managing and mitigating HSI domains.
• Applying modeling and simulation techniques to develop and
assess derived requirements, design concepts, and criteria,
including task modeling, workload assessment, and human-inthe-
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For 45 years, Thomas Malone has developed and applied human factors engineering to complex human-machine systems for government and industry in the United States, Canada, Europe, and the Far East. He was HFES president in 1992 and is a Fellow of HFES and the Washington Academy of Sciences. He is co-owner of Carlow International. Pamela Savage-Knepshield is a research psychologist and MANPRINT practitioner supporting acquisition programs at Fort Monmouth’s Communications and Electronics Command. She has more than 20 years of experience working in industry. She is the HFES Bulletin features editor and the Army Representative to the Department of Defense Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group. Larry Avery has more
than 25 years of experience in human factors engineering. He is working for BMT Designers and Planners on a number of projects focused on improving ship design, including the development of a noise control guidebook designed to educate engineers on the implications of noise and how to mitigate them.