Crashes involving looking but not seeing (processing) may
increase as “hands-free” and voice-based interfaces become more
popular. Given that the integration of such devices is critical to how
they are used, designers cannot assume that following the AAM
principles for each device will result in a safe system when multiple
devices are placed in a car (Lee & Kantowitz, 2001). Designers may
want to explore integrating information flows from the various
devices to coordinate information presented to the driver. For
instance, linking collision warning information to the use of such
devices could help redirect a driver’s attention to a hazard ahead.
There is also the question of how carried-in devices such as
personal digital assistants (PDAs), cell phones, and pagers should
be integrated into the driving environment. We know these
devices are used while driving, so this becomes an even more critical
issue when one considers how such devices are intended to be
used relative to how they will be used.